How peaches are processed: drying, storage of pits and cold-pressed seed oil
Tashkent, Uzbekistan (UzDaily.com) -- Peaches are consumed not only fresh, but also in the form of processing - juice, puree. The oil is extracted from the seeds of the fruit. In 2021, 193.3 thousand tons of peaches were grown on an area of 21.4 thousand hectares of peach orchards of the republic. Of these, 24.3 thousand tons were sent to peach processing enterprises.
To obtain quality products, peaches are harvested two or three times, depending on their ripeness. The collection and preparation of peach pits, their processing, especially the drying of fruits, is carried out more often at enterprises.
When drying to obtain a quality product, the peel of peaches is removed. To do this, sorted and collected fruits in a special basket are placed in boiling water in a pan with a 0.5% soda solution for 20-25 seconds. Then the fruits in the basket are cooled in cold water, peeled and a deep line is cut in the middle of the fruit with a knife, thus dividing it into two parts, the stone is removed.
In some varieties of peaches, the pit is attached to the pulp, in which case the pit is removed with a special knife with a fold at the tip. The kernels extracted from peach fruits are dried in the open air and packaged in 12-15 kg paper bags, labeled and stored on racks in warehouses. It is necessary to periodically check their appearance and quality in accordance with the requirements of GOST 21833-76. Fertile seeds and oil are obtained from these kernels.
Making peach butter
To extract the oil from the peach pit, the kernels are extracted. The skin of the kernels is smooth, light brown in color, with an average length of 2-2.2 cm, a width of 1.3-1.6 cm. When wetted with hot water, the skin swells a little and is easily separated. The core consists of two halves, is odorless and smells like cyanic acid when ground in a mortar. Broken kernels oxidize in air during storage, and their color changes slightly. To obtain oil, the seeds are fried in special rotating drums and separated from the skins using a machine. Then they are crushed in a mill and the oil is extracted by cold pressing. Peach kernels contain 54-58% oil, 0.4-0.8% essential oil, amygdamine glycoside, emulsin enzyme and other biologically active substances. The oil is a yellow thick liquid with a pleasant taste and a characteristic faint odor. It is stored on racks in dimly lit rooms.
The composition of peach oil is similar to almond oil, it can be used instead of almond oil. Charcoal tablets can be prepared from peach pits by burning their peel, grinding in a mill, passing through a 0.20 mm nylon sieve.
The benefits of peaches
Peach fruits contain carotene, vitamins B, C, B6, biotin, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamine, folic acid. Total carbohydrates 10.4%, organic acids 0.7%. Energy value 44 kcal / 184 kJ. According to homologous varieties, according to the requirements of GOST 21833-76, peaches are divided into high-quality, first and second grades, and they must be clean, ripe, fully formed, disease-free.